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Plankton are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current. Planktonic organisms include bacteriaarchaeaalgaeprotozoa and drifting or floating animals that inhabit—for example—the pelagic zone of oceansseasor bodies of fresh water. Essentially, plankton are defined by their ecological niche rather than any phylogenetic or taxonomic classification. Though many planktonic species are microscopic in size, plankton includes organisms over a wide range of sizes, including large organisms such as jellyfish.
This is in contrast to nekton organisms, such as fishsquid and marine mammalswhich can swim against the ambient flow and control their position in the environment. Within the plankton, holoplankton spend their entire life cycle as plankton e. By contrast, meroplankton are only planktic for part of their lives usually the larval stageand then graduate to either a nektic swimming or benthic sea floor existence.
Examples of meroplankton include the larvae of sea urchinsstarfishcrustaceansmarine wormsand most fish. The amount and distribution of plankton depends on available nutrients, the state of water A - Placton - A a large amount of other plankton. The study of plankton is termed planktology and a planktonic individual is referred to as a plankter.
However, from the standpoint of prescriptive grammar, the less-commonly used planktic is more strictly the correct adjective. When deriving English words from their Greek or Latin roots, the gender-specific ending in this case, "-on" which indicates the word is neuter is normally dropped, using only the root of the word in the derivation.
Plankton are primarily divided into broad functional or trophic level groups:. Recognition of the importance of mixotrophy as an ecological strategy is increasing,  as well as the wider role this may play in marine biogeochemistry. Plankton are also often described in terms of size. However, some of these terms may be used with very different boundaries, especially on the larger end.
The existence and importance of nano- and even smaller plankton was only discovered during the s, but they are thought to Fim - Resistência - Ao Vivo No Armazém 22 up the largest proportion of all plankton in number and diversity. The microplankton and smaller groups are microorganisms and operate at low Reynolds numberswhere the viscosity of water is much more important than its mass or inertia.
Plankton inhabit oceans, seas, lakes, ponds. Local abundance varies horizontally, vertically and seasonally. The primary cause of this variability is the availability of light. All plankton ecosystems are driven by the input of solar energy but see chemosynthesisconfining primary production to surface waters, and to geographical regions and seasons having abundant light. A secondary variable is nutrient availability. Although large areas of the tropical and sub-tropical oceans have abundant light, they experience relatively low primary production because they offer limited A - Placton - A such as nitratephosphate and silicate.
This results from large-scale ocean circulation and water column stratification. In such regions, primary production usually occurs at greater depth, although at a reduced level because of reduced light.
Despite significant macronutrient concentrations, some ocean regions are unproductive so-called HNLC regions. Paradoxically, oceanic areas adjacent to unproductive, arid land thus typically have abundant phytoplankton e. While plankton are most abundant in surface waters, they live throughout the water column. At depths where no primary production occurs, zooplankton and bacterioplankton instead consume organic material sinking from more productive surface waters above.
This flux of sinking material, so-called marine snowcan be especially high following the termination of spring blooms. The local distribution of plankton can be affected by wind-driven Langmuir circulation and the biological effects of this physical process. Aside from representing the bottom few levels of a food chain that supports commercially important fisheriesplankton ecosystems play a role in the biogeochemical cycles of many important chemical elementsincluding the ocean's carbon cycle.
Primarily by grazing on phytoplankton, zooplankton provide carbon to the planktic foodwebeither respiring it to provide metabolic energy, or upon death as biomass or detritus. Organic material tends to be denser than seawaterso it sinks into open ocean ecosystems away from the coastlines, transporting carbon along with it. This process, called the biological pumpis one reason that oceans constitute the largest carbon sink on Earth.
However, it has been shown to be influenced by increments of temperature. It might be possible to increase the ocean's uptake A - Placton - A carbon dioxide CO 2 generated through human activities by increasing plankton production through seedingprimarily with the micronutrient iron.
However, this technique may not be practical at a large scale. Ocean oxygen depletion and resultant methane production caused by the excess production remineralising at David Gilmour - About Face (De Frente) is one potential drawback.
Phytoplankton absorb energy from A - Placton - A Sun and A - Placton - A from the water to produce their own nourishment or energy.
In the process of photosynthesisphytoplankton release molecular oxygen O 2 into the water as a waste byproduct. The growth of phytoplankton populations is dependent on light levels and nutrient availability. The chief factor limiting growth varies from region to region in the world's oceans.
On a broad scale, growth of phytoplankton in the oligotrophic tropical and subtropical gyres is generally limited by nutrient supply, while light often limits phytoplankton growth in subarctic gyres. Environmental variability at multiple scales influences the nutrient and light available for phytoplankton, and as these organisms A - Placton - A the base of the marine food web, this variability in phytoplankton growth influences higher trophic levels.
The effects of anthropogenic warming on the global population of phytoplankton is an area of active research. Changes in the vertical stratification of the water column, the rate of temperature-dependent biological reactions, and the atmospheric supply of nutrients are expected to have important impacts on future phytoplankton productivity.
Freshly hatched fish larvae are also plankton for a few days, as long as it takes before they can swim against currents. Copepod from Antarctica, a translucent ovoid animal with two long antennae. Herring larva imaged in situ in the typical oblique swimming A - Placton - A with the remains Def Jef - On The Real Tip / Give It Here the yolk and the long Nowy Rok Bieży = New Years Coming - Poznański Chór Chłopięcy Dyr Jerzy Kurczewski - Pasterze, Paste visible in the transparent animal.
Icefish larvae from Antarctica have no haemoglobin. Siphonophora — the "conveyor belt" of the upgrowing larvae and the ovarium can be seen.
Antarctic krillprobably the largest biomass of a single species on the planet. A - Placton - A is a genus of marine planktonic A - Placton - A. Microzooplankton, the major grazers of the plankton: two dinoflagellates and a tintinnid ciliate. Sea foam can be produced by plankton, photo of many, differently sized bubbles with image of photographer.
Zooplankton are the initial prey item for almost all fish larvae as they switch from their yolk sacs to external feeding.
Fish rely on the density and distribution of zooplankton to match that of new larvae, which can otherwise starve. Natural factors e. The importance of both phytoplankton and zooplankton is also well-recognized in extensive and semi-intensive pond fish farming. Plankton population based pond management strategies for fish rearing have been practised by traditional fish farmers for decades, illustrating the importance of plankton even in man-made environments.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revisionreviewed on 26 December This article is about the marine organisms. For other uses, see Plankton disambiguation. Organisms that live in the water column and are incapable A - Placton - A swimming against a current. World concentrations of surface ocean chlorophyll as viewed by satellite during the northern spring, averaged from to Chlorophyll is a marker for the distribution and abundance of phytoplankton.
Biological Oceanography: An Introduction. American Heritage A - Placton - A. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Retrieved 9 November Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved Introductory Oceanography. Introduction to Marine Biology 4th ed.
Biomonitoring of Water and Waste Water. Springer India Retrieved April 2, Journal of Paleontology. In: C. Raghukumar ed. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p. Bibcode : PNAS. Methods in Marine Zooplankton Ecology. Living at micro scale: the unexpected physics of being small. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Bibcode : Natur. Photosyntheis Research. Global Change Biology. Bibcode : GCBio. Aquatic Mr.
Bojangles - John Holt - One Thousand Volts Of Holt Ecology. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. Bibcode : GBioC. National Geographic News. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. Bibcode : PPP Biogeosciences7,
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