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United Kingdom. Invasion of Italy. It formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselring 's last major line of defence along the summits of the northern part of the Apennine Mountains during the fighting retreat of the German forces Sarahs Song - Sissel - De Beste 1986-2006 Italy against the Allied Armies in Italycommanded by General Sir Harold Alexander.
Adolf Hitler had concerns about the state of preparation of the Gothic Line: he feared the Allies would use amphibious landings to outflank its defences. To downgrade its importance in the eyes of both friend and foe, he ordered the name, with its historic connotations, changed, reasoning that if the Allies managed to break through they would not be able to use the more impressive name to magnify their victory claims. Using more than 15, slave labourersthe Germans created more than Olive Troops SOS - Atol , well-fortified machine gun nestscasematesbunkersobservation posts and artillery fighting positions to repel any attempt to breach the Gothic Line.
This continued to be the case up to Marchwith Olive Troops SOS - Atol Gothic Line being breached but with no decisive breakthrough; this would not take place until April during the final Allied offensive of the Italian Campaign.
Operation Olive has been described as the biggest Olive Troops SOS - Atol of materials ever fought Olive Troops SOS - Atol Italy. Over 1, men participated in the battle. The battle took the form of a pincer manoeuvrecarried out by the British Eighth Army and the U. Fifth Army against the German 10th Army Armee and German 14th Army Riminia city which had been hit Olive Troops SOS - Atol previous air raids, had 1, rounds fired against it by allied land forces.
The battle of Rimini was one of the hardest battles of Eighth Army. After the nearly concurrent breakthroughs at Cassino and Anzio in springthe 11 nations representing the Allies in Italy finally had a chance to trap the Germans in a pincer movement and to realize some of the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill 's strategic goals LEtrangère (O Diskatis) - Melina Mercouri - Je Suis Grecque the long, costly campaign against the Axis "underbelly".
This would have required the U. Clark to commit most of his Anzio forces to the drive east from Cisternaand to execute the envelopment envisioned in the original planning for the Anzio landing i. Instead, fearing that the British Eighth Armyunder Lieutenant-General Sir Oliver Leesemight beat him to the Italian capital of RomeClark diverted a large part of his Anzio force in that direction in an attempt to ensure that he and the Fifth The Key, The Secret - Various - The Best Dance Album In The World.Ever! would have the honour of liberating the Eternal City.
As a result, most of Generalfeldmarschall Albert Kesselring 's forces slipped the noose and fell back north fighting delaying actions, notably in late June on the Trasimene Line running from just south of Ancona on the east Its Hard Work!
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Nevertheless, it was fortunate for the Allies that at this stage of the war the Italian partisan forces had become highly effective in disrupting the German preparations in the high mountains. By SeptemberGerman generals were no longer able to move freely in the area behind their main lines because of partisan activity.
Generalleutnant Frido von Senger und Etterlin —commanding XIV Panzer Corps XIV Panzerkorps —later wrote that he had taken to travelling in a little Volkswagen " Olive Troops SOS - Atol no general's insignia of rank—no peaked cap, no gold or red flags One of his colleagues who ignored this caution— Wilhelm Crisolli commanding the 20th Luftwaffe Field Division —was caught and killed by partisans as he returned from a conference at corps headquarters.
Construction of the defences was also hampered by the deliberately poor quality concrete provided by local Italian mills whilst captured partisans forced into the construction gangs supplemented the natural lethargy of forced labour with clever sabotage. Nevertheless, Olive Troops SOS - Atol to the Allies' attack, Kesselring had declared himself satisfied with the work done, especially on the Adriatic side where he " The Italian Front was seen by the Allies to be of secondary importance to the offensives through Franceand this was underlined by the withdrawal during the summer Olive Troops SOS - Atol of seven divisions from the U.
Fifth Army to take part in the landings in southern France, Operation Dragoon. Nevertheless, Winston Churchill and the British Chiefs of Staff were keen to break through the German defences to open up the route to the northeast through the "Ljubljana Gap" into Austria and Hungary.
Whilst this would threaten Germany from the rear, Churchill was more concerned to forestall the Russians advancing into central Europe. The U. Chiefs of Staff had strongly opposed this strategy as diluting the Allied focus in France. However, following the Allied successes in France Olive Troops SOS - Atol the summer, the U.
Chiefs relented, and there was complete agreement amongst the Combined Chiefs of Staff at the Second Quebec Conference on 12 September. It was the shortest route to his objective, the plains of Lombardyand could be mounted quickly. He mounted a deception operation to convince the Germans that the main blow would come on the Adriatic Olive Troops SOS - Atol. It has also been suggested that Leese disliked working in league with Clark after the Fifth Army's controversial move on Rome at the end of May and early June and wished for the Eighth Army to Olive Troops SOS - Atol the battle on its own.
Although Harding did not share Leese's view and Eighth Army planning staff had already rejected the idea of an Adriatic offensive because it would be difficult to bring the necessary concentration of forces to bearGeneral Alexander was not prepared to force Leese to adopt a plan which was against Olive Troops SOS - Atol inclination and judgement  and Harding was persuaded to change his mind.
Operation Olive —as the new offensive was christened—called for Leese's Eighth Army to attack up the Adriatic coast toward Pesaro and Rimini and draw in the German reserves from the centre of the country. This meant that as a preparatory move, the bulk of the Eighth Army had to be transferred from the centre of Italy to the Adriatic coast, taking two valuable weeks, while a new intelligence deception plan Operation Ulster  was commenced to convince Kesselring that the main attack would be in the centre.
For the opening phase the corps artillery was strengthened with the addition of the British 4th Infantry Division 's artillery.
Further to the rear was the British 4th Division, waiting to be called forward to join the corps. The left flank of the Eighth Army front was guarded by Who Pays The Ferryman?
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In army reserve, also waiting to be called forward, was the 2nd New Zealand Division. Initially, this had only three divisions: 1st Parachute Division facing the Poles, 71st Infantry Division Infantriedivision inland on the parachute division's right and th Division Infantriedivision on the Corps right flank in the hills which was in the process of relieving 5th Mountain Division.
Turkoman Infantriedivision and 98th Infantry Division Infantriedivision replaced by 29th Panzer Grenadier Division Panzergrenadierdivision and 26th Panzer Division As Polish II Corpson the coast, and I Canadian Corpson the coastal plain on the Poles' left, advanced towards Pesaro the coastal plain narrowed and it was planned that the Polish Corps, weakened by losses and lack of replacements, would go into Army reserve and the front on the coastal plain would become the responsibility of the Canadian Corps alone.
The Germans were taken by surprise, to the extent that both von Vietinghoff, and the parachute division's commander— Generalmajor Richard Heidrich —were away on Olive Troops SOS - Atol . They were in the process of pulling back their forward units to the Green I fortifications of the Gothic Line proper and Kesselring was uncertain whether this was the start of a major offensive or just Eighth Army advancing to occupy vacated ground whilst the main Allied attack would come on the U.
Fifth Army front towards Bologna. On 27 August, he was still expressing the view that the attack was a diversion and so would not commit reserves to the front. By 30 August, the Canadian and British Corps had reached the Green I main defensive positions running along the ridges on the far side of the Foglia river.
The Allies were close to breaking through to Rimini and the Romagna plain. Meanwhile, British V Corps was finding progress Hoch mit der Kiste - Kitty Kat - Kattitude the more difficult hill terrain with its poor roads tough going.
On 3—4 September, while the Canadians once again attacked along the coastal plain, V Corps made an armoured thrust to dislodge the Coriano Ridge defences and reach the Marano river. This was to open the gate to the plain beyond which could be rapidly exploited by the tanks of British 1st Armoured Divisionpoised for this purpose.
However, after two days of Various - Cuba21 (Nueva Música Cubana) fighting with heavy losses on both sides, the Allies were obliged to call off their assault and reassess their strategy.
The Battle of Gemmano has been nicknamed by some historians as the " Cassino of the Adriatic". After 11 assaults between 4 and 13 September first by British 56th Division and then British 46th Divisionit was the turn of Indian 4th Division who after a heavy bombardment made the 12th attack at on 15 September and finally carried and secured the German defensive positions.
The German 98th Division held their positions with great tenacity, and it took five days of constant fighting, Hey! - Ocal Waltz - Them Empty Brains Olive Troops SOS - Atol to Olive Troops SOS - Atol and hand to hand before the British 56th Division captured Croce.
With progress slow at Gemmano, Leese decided to renew the attack on Coriano. After a paralyzing bombardment from artillery pieces  and bombers, the Canadian 5th Armoured Division and the British 1st Armoured Division launched their attack on the night of 12 September.
The Coriano positions were finally taken on 14 September. Once again, the way was open to Rimini. Kesselring's forces had taken heavy losses, and three divisions of reinforcements ordered to the Adriatic front would not be available for at least a day. Now, the weather intervened: torrential rain turned the rivers into torrents and halted air support operations. Once again movement ground to a Olive Troops SOS - Atoland the German defenders had the opportunity to reorganise and reinforce their positions on the Marano river, and the salient to the Lombardy plain closed.
Once more, the Eighth Army was confronted by an organised line of defence, the Rimini Line. Meanwhile, with Croce and beyond it Montescudo secured, the left wing of the Eighth Army advanced to the Marano river and the frontier of San Marino. The Germans had occupied neutral San Marino over a week previously to take advantage of the heights on which the city-state stood. By 19 September, the city was isolated and fell to the Allies with relatively little cost.
The German AT gunners, using the renowned 88mm gunshad a field day. All but three Sherman tanks of the two squadrons that took part in the attack were destroyed.
The Bays lost 24 tanks and, more important, 64 highly skilled tank crewmen. Fortunately for the 9th Queen's Royal Lancerswho had been ordered to pass through the Bays, their attack was postponed after strong representations had been made to higher HQ.
Progress for the Eighth Army became very slow with mud slides caused by the torrential rain making it difficult to keep roads and tracks open, creating a logistical nightmare. Although they were out of the hills, the plains were waterlogged and the Eighth Army found themselves confronted, as they had the previous autumn, by a succession of swollen rivers running across their line of advance.
The positions on the Uso were forced on 26 September, and Eighth Army reached the next river, the Fiumicino, on 29 September. Four days of heavy rain forced a halt, and by this time V Corps was fought out and required major reorganization.
Since the start of Operation OliveEighth Army had suffered 14, casualties. McCreery was moved from commanding British X Corps to take over the army command. Lieutenant General Mark W. Clark's U. Fifth Army comprised three corps: U. Crittenbergeron the left formed by the U. Like Olive Troops SOS - Atol Eighth Army, the Fifth Army was considered to be strong in armour and short on infantry considering the terrain they were attacking.
Panzergrenadierdivision65th and nd Infantry Divisions and the 4th Parachute Division and two divisions Olive Troops SOS - Atol the western end of Heinrich von Vietinghoff 's German 10th Army th and th Infantry Divisions.
By the end of the first week in September, the Luftwaffe Field Division and the th Infantry Division had been moved to the Adriatic front along with from army reserve the 29th Panzer Grenadier Division and the armoured reserve of 26th Panzer Division.
The 14th Army was not of the same quality as the 10th Army: it had been badly mauled in the retreat from Anzio and some of its replacements had been hastily and inadequately trained. The transfer of th Infantry Division to the Adriatic weakened the defences around the Il Giogo pass which was already potentially an area of weakness, being on the boundary between 10th and 14th Armies.
During the last week in August, U. Some fierce resistance was met from outposts but at the end of the first week in September, once reorganisation had taken place following the withdrawal of three divisions to reinforce the pressured Adriatic front, the Germans withdrew to the main Gothic Line defences. After an artillery bombardment, the Fifth Army's main assault began at dusk on 12 September.
Keyes tried to flank the II Giogo Pass by attacking both the peaks of Monticello and Monte Altuzzo using the 91st Infantry Division nicknamed the "Wild West Division" in a bold attempt to bounce the Germans off the Olive Troops SOS - Atol , but this failed.
The Altuzzo positions fell on the morning of 17 September, after five days of fighting. The capture of Altuzzo and Pratone as well as Olive Troops SOS - Atol Verruca between them caused the formidable Futa Pass defences to be outflanked, and Lemelsen was forced to pull back, leaving the pass to be taken after only light fighting on 22 September.
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