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In I: Allegro, Ma Non Troppo - Quasi Moderato - - Dvořák*, Sarah Chang, Sir Colin Davis, Leif Ove Andsn coordinated attacks, the perpetrators released sarin on three lines of the Tokyo Metro then part of the Tokyo subway during rush hour, killing 13 people,   and injuring at least 5, others.
The group, led by Shoko Asaharahad already carried out several assassinations and terrorist attacks using sarin, including the Matsumoto sarin attack nine months earlier. In the raid following the attack, police arrested many senior members of the cult. Police 1995 After Hour #21 - Kayjee - 1995 After Hour #21 continued throughout the summer, and over members were arrested, including Asahara.
Thirteen of the senior Aum management were sentenced to death and later executed; many others were given prison sentences up to life.
The attack remains the deadliest terrorist incident in Japan as defined by modern standards. The group believed in a doctrine revolving around a syncretic mixture of Indian and Tibetan Buddhismas well as Christian and Hindu beliefs, especially relating to the Hindu god Shiva. They believed Armageddon to be inevitable in the form of a global war involving the United States and Japan; that non-members were doomed to eternal hell, but could be saved if killed by cult members; and that only members of the cult would survive the apocalypse, and would afterwards build the Kingdom of Shambhala.
Inthe group rebranded and established a New York branch; the following year, it opened a headquarters in Fujinomiya. Around this time, the mental health of Matsumoto now going by the name Shoko Asahara deteriorated — he developed a health anxiety and expressed suicidal views.
In Augustthe group was granted official religious corporation status by the Tokyo Metropolitan Governmentgiving it privileges such as The Memory Remains - Metallica - Hamburg Magnetic (File) breaks and freedom from governmental oversight. The drastically increasing popularity of the group also saw an increase in violent behaviour from its members.
In the year preceding its recognition by the Tokyo government, a member of the cult — Terayuki Majima — had accidentally drowned during a ritual; his body was cremated, with the remaining bones ground up and scattered over a nearby lake. Majima's friend — a fellow member of the group — was murdered by members acting under Asahara's orders, after becoming disillusioned and trying to leave.
Three months after recognition, six Aum Shinrikyo members were involved in the murder of a lawyer, Tsutsumi Sakamoto, who had been working on a class-action lawsuit against the cult, as well as his wife and 1-year-old son.
Asahara had experienced delusions of grandeur as early as — while meditating, he claims that the god Shiva had been revealed to him, and had appointed him 'Abiraketsu no Mikoto' 'The god of light who leads the armies of the gods'who was to build the Kingdom of Shambhalaa utopian society made up of those who had developed 'psychic powers'.
Despite showing confidence in their ability to gain seats in the diet, the party received only 1, votes; the failure to achieve power legitimately, blamed by Asahara on an external conspiracy propagated by " Freemasons and Jews "caused him to order the cult to produce botulinum and phosgene in order to overthrow the Japanese government. As members became disillusioned with the group following contact with the outside world made during the election campaign and defected, an attitude among the remaining members that 'the unenlightened' did not Verses - The Almighty $amhill* - The Preface salvation became accepted.
Attempts to stockpile botulinum toxin proved unsuccessful. Seiichi Endo - one of the members tasked with acquiring botulinum Ivanushka - Sarius - I Żyli Krótko I Szczęśliwie - collected soil samples from the Ishikari Riverand attempted to produce the toxin using three 10, litre capacity fermenters.
In total, around 50 batches of 9, litres of a crude broth were produced — however, the cult did not attempt to purify the broth which mostly would have consisted of bacterial cultivation media ; one member even fell into one of the fermenters and nearly drowned, but otherwise suffered no ill effects.
Despite mouse bioassays run by Tomomasu Nakagawa another cult member assisting Endo returning no toxic effects, in April the crude broth was loaded into three trucks equipped with custom spray devices, which was to be sprayed at two US naval bases, Narita airport, the Diet building, the Imperial Palace, and the headquarters of a rival religious group.
Simultaneously, Asahara announced that the coming apocalyptic war could not save people outside of the cult, and that members should attend a three-day seminar in Ishigakijima Tennyson - Thomas Newman - Skyfall (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack) order to seek shelter. The spraying attacks failed to cause any ill effects among the population but people attended the seminar, many of them becoming devout monks.
With the intention of building a compound incorporating facilities such as a phosgene plant as well as facilities to manufacture VX and chlorine gasAum Shinrikyo used 14 dummy companies to purchase acres of land in Namino now part of Aso cityand began construction.
However, public attitudes towards the cult had become very negative due to suspicions around the cult's illegal activities. These attitudes were exacerbated once it was revealed to the surrounding community that the group had acted illegally. A police investigation in October resulted in the arrests of several Aum members, causing Asahara to fear a police raid — he hence ordered the destruction of all biological and chemical weapon stockpiles, and for the cult to focus on legitimate, non-violent strategies only.
After the destruction of the illegal weapon stockpiles, the cult relied on 'mainstream' methods to attract other members — this included frequent television appearances by Asahara, as well as the setting up of the 'Aum Shinrikyo broadcasting' radio station in Russia in April However, starting in lateAsahara's mental health deteriorated further — his suicidal feelings intensified, he began to complain of hallucinations and paranoia,  and he withdrew from public appearances except for on Aum Shinrikyo Broadcastingclaiming society was preventing him from fulfilling his destiny as Christ.
The concurrent replacement of the previously predominantly female group of top advisers with a more 1995 After Hour #21 - Kayjee - 1995 After Hour #21 male group lead to the gradual restarting of the violent campaign to seize power. At some point inAsahara published Declaring Myself the Christin which he identified with the " Lamb of God ". He outlined a doomsday prophecy, which included a Third World Warand described a final conflict culminating in a nuclear Armageddonborrowing the term from the Book of Revelation Asahara claimed to be able to see dark conspiracies everywhere promulgated by JewsFreemasonsthe Dutchthe British Royal Familyand rival Japanese religions.
The president of the Okamura ironworks, an industrial plant facing debt troubles, was a member of the 1995 After Hour #21 - Kayjee - 1995 After Hour #21 who consulted with Asahara about a takeover strategy.
These workers were replaced with other members of the group. Over the course ofthe cult smuggled AK rifles and 5. Under the oversight of Endo, Můj První Klobouk - Miloslav Šimek - Povídky Šimka A Grossmanna 2 biological weapons division of the cult resumed — this time pursuing not only botulinum toxin, but also anthraxusing improved litre drum fermenters at their Kameido facility.
Again, the group did not attempt to purify the resulting product, which resembled Ballykelly Disco (Demo) - Exit-Stance - While Backs Are Turned. foul-smelling brown slurry.
Further failed attacks on individuals were attempted in and using botulinum — first using a 1995 After Hour #21 - Kayjee - 1995 After Hour #21 sprayer mounted to a car, and then by mixing with juice — but neither had any effects. Five days before the sarin attack on the Tokyo subways, botulinum was dispersed in a failed attack on Kasumigaseki station — a dissident member had replaced the active compound with water, but the cult had failed to acquire an active strain of C.
Similarly, the Aum anthrax program was a failure — despite having access to a sympathiser outside of the group who could acquire anthrax spores, the strain received by the group was a Sterne vaccine strain incapable of causing harm. Father - Fashawn - Boy Meets World. was unclear why, despite having this knowledge, the group executed two attacks in using this vaccine strain — once from the roof of the headquarters building in Kameido, and once from a truck with a custom spraying device, aimed at the Diet building, Imperial Palace, and Tokyo Tower.
Both attacks caused no effects other than a foul smell, reported by passers-by. In the summer ofEndo attempted a different strategy — by desiccating the slurry, the B. Nakagawa has claimed that an attempt was made to spread this powder through the centre of Tokyo, but this, also, had no effects. The total failure of the biological weapons program had, by mid, convinced Asahara to focus on the chemical weapons division under Masami Tsuchiya.
While Endo would be promoted within the cult to 'health minister' in — reflecting his seniority — no further attacks using biological weapons were attempted. Tsuchiya had established a small laboratory in their Kamikuishiki complex in November After initial research done at Tsukuba Universitywhere he had previously studied chemistryhe suggested to Hideo Murai — a senior Aum advisor who had tasked him with researching chemical weapons in Novemberout of fear that the cult would soon be attacked with them — that the most cost-effective substance to synthesise would be sarin.
He was subsequently ordered to produce a small amount — within a month, the necessary equipment had been ordered and installed, and g of sarin had been produced via synthetic procedures derived from the 1995 After Hour #21 - Kayjee - 1995 After Hour #21 DHMP process as originally described by IG Farben inand as used by the Allies after World War II.
After this small quantity had been produced, Murai ordered Tsuchiya to produce about 70 tons — when Tsuchiya protested, noting that this level of scaling was not feasible in a research laboratory, a chemical plant was ordered to be built alongside the biological production facility in the Fujigamine district of Kamikuishiki, to be labelled Satyan-7 'Truth'.
Square Dance Party - Louis Delacour - Rythmes specialised equipment and substantial chemicals needed to run the facility were purchased using shell companies under Hasegawa Chemical, a chemical company already owned by Aum.
At the same time, in SeptemberAsahara and 24 other cult members travelled from Tokyo to PerthAustralia, bringing generators, tools, protective equipment including gas masks and respiratorsand chemicals to make sarin. After repurchasing chemicals confiscated by customs, the group chartered aircraft from Perth to Banjawarn Stationwhere they searched for uranium deposits to make nuclear weaponsand may have tested the efficacy of the 1995 After Hour #21 - Kayjee - 1995 After Hour #21 sarin on animals.
They remained in Australia for eight days and attempted to return in October of the same year, but were denied visas — Banjawarn Station would be sold a year later. Despite the safety features and often state-of-the-art equipment and practices, the operation of the facility was very unsafe - one analyst would later describe the cult as having 'a high degree of book learning, but virtually nothing in the way of technical skill'.
When the facility developed leaks, buckets were used to contain spills; several technicians inhaled fumes on repeated occasions, developing 'symptoms ranging from nosebleeds to convulsions',  and toxic chemicals leaked from the site and into the soil. Citizens lodged complaints about foul smells several times, with the cult claiming that the US Army had assaulted the complex with poison gas. An accident at the plant in November would eventually force the suspension of the production of chemical agents.
The first attack involved a truck with a spraying system, as previously used — the spraying system malfunctioned, spraying sarin into the truck itself, and mildly poisoning the operators. The second attack utilised a truck modified to include an evaporation system based on heating sarin over a Silver Walks - Ed Davenport - Silver Walks stove fire; despite prior warnings from cult member Kazuyoshi Takizawa, the truck caught fire during the dissemination, severely poisoning the driver Tomomitsu Niimi and causing both Niimi and Murai — the operators — to flee.
Niimi received an injection of atropine and pralidoximine iodine, saving his life. Despite the failure of the attack, the members of Aum were convinced of sarin's efficacy, prompting Asahara to appoint Takizawa in charge of operations of Satyan-7; Tsuchiya was assigned to several other projects and would go on to manufacture several psychoactives — LSDPCPmethamphetaminemescalineand phenobarbital to be used in the cult activities and brainwashing ; he would also manufacture small amounts of phosgene, VX, somancyclosarinand gunpowder.
These compounds would be used in several attacks and assassination attempts:. In JuneAsahara ordered the cult to assassinate the judges involved in deciding a commercial land dispute involving the cult, due to his belief that they would not deliver a favourable judgement. About a week later, on 27 June, 30L of sarin was loaded onto a truck equipped with a fan, heater, and pump — six members, pre-administered with sarin antidotes and wearing improvised gas masks, began the propagation of sarin at around pm, spraying for around 10—20 minutes.
Due to it being a warm evening, many residents had left their windows open while they slept — the first emergency call was made at pm.
Within an hour, a mass disaster caused by an unknown toxic gas had been declared. Fifty-eight people were hospitalised, of whom eight people died, and an additional people sought medical care at outpatient clinics. Blame would not be clearly attributed to Aum Shinrikyo until after the subway attack, despite tipoffs — in Septembertwo anonymous letters were sent to major media outlets in Japan — the first asserting that the group were responsible for the attack, and the second claiming that Matsumoto was an open-air 'experiment of sorts', noting that the results would have been much worse if sarin had been released indoors, such as in 'a crowded subway'.
Following an accident at Satyan-7 the next month and complaints from the surrounding communitiesa police investigation revealed methylphosphonic acid and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid — the former being a degradation product of sarin, and the latter being a definitive signature of both sarin production and of failures in production. However, there was no law at the time prohibiting the production of the nerve agents.
Fingerprint evidence for an Aum member linked to an earlier kidnapping, in addition to the sarin-contaminated soil samples, caused the police to set a raid date for 22 March. Asahara was made aware of the impending raid by two cult members inside the Self-Defense Forcesand ordered an attack on Tokyo subway lines close to the Metropolitan Police Department on the morning of the 20th March — possibly as a desperate attack to initiate the apocalypse.
To aid in this, Tsuchiya was ordered by Endo to produce sarin again on 18 March - due to a lack of normal precursors as a result of the chemical destruction process, the sarin produced was of a lower quality and caused the normally colourless sarin to appear brown. Later forensic analysis found that the sarin utilised in the attack was roughly half as pure as that used in the Matsumoto attack.
On Monday, 20 Marchfive members of Aum Shinrikyo launched a chemical attack on the Tokyo subway on lines that are part of the present-day Tokyo Metroone of the world's busiest commuter transport systems, at the peak of the morning rush hour. The chemical agent used, liquid sarinwas contained in plastic bags which each team then wrapped in newspaper. Each perpetrator carried two packets totaling approximately 0. Aum originally planned to spread the sarin as an aerosol but did not follow through with it.
Carrying their packets of sarin and umbrellas with sharpened tips, the perpetrators boarded their appointed trains. At prearranged stations, the sarin packets were dropped and punctured several times with the sharpened tip of the umbrella. Each perpetrator then got off the train and exited the station to meet his accomplice with a car.
Leaving the punctured packets on the floor allowed the sarin to leak out into the train car and stations. This sarin affected passengers, subway workers, and those who came into contact with them.
Sarin is the most volatile of the nerve agents,  which means that it can quickly and easily evaporate from a liquid into a vapor and spread into the environment.
People can be exposed to the vapor even if they do not come in contact with the liquid form of sarin. Because it evaporates so quickly, sarin presents an immediate but short-lived threat. The team of Ikuo Hayashi and Tomomitsu Niimi 1995 After Hour #21 - Kayjee - 1995 After Hour #21 assigned to drop and puncture two sarin packets on the Chiyoda Line. Hayashi was the perpetrator and Niimi was his 1995 After Hour #21 - Kayjee - 1995 After Hour #21 driver.
Hayashi eventually chose to use Akahata. Wearing a surgical mask commonly worn by the Japanese during cold November - Quiet Daze - Viewing A Decade EP flu season, Hayashi boarded the first car of southwest-bound Chiyoda Line train number 1995 After Hour #21 - Kayjee - 1995 After Hour #21 . As the train approached Shin-Ochanomizu Stationthe central business district in Chiyodahe punctured one of his two bags of sarin, leaving the other untouched, and exited the train at Shin-Ochanomizu.
The train proceeded down the line with the punctured bag of sarin leaking until 4 stops later at Kasumigaseki Station. There, the bags were removed and eventually disposed of by station attendants, of whom two died.
The train continued on to the next station where it was completely stopped, evacuated and cleaned. Two men, Ken'ichi Hirose and Koichi Kitamura, were assigned to release two sarin packets on the westbound Marunouchi Line destined for Ogikubo Station. He then bought a sports tabloid to wrap the sarin packets in and boarded the second car of Marunouchi Line train A
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