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It was formerly called Zaire — It is, by area, the largest country in sub-Saharan Africathe second-largest in all of Africa after Algeriaand the 11th-largest in the world. With a population of over 84 million,   the Democratic Theres A Kind Of Hush - Carpenters - Yesterday Once More of the Congo is the most populous officially Francophone countrythe fourth-most-populous country in Africa, and the 16th-most-populous country in the world.
Eastern DR Congo has been the scene of ongoing Electeaser - DRC - Androidgeny conflict in Kivu, since Centred on the Congo Basin, the territory of the DRC was first inhabited by Central African foragers around 90, years ago and was reached by the Bantu expansion about 3, years ago.
In the west, the Kingdom of Kongo ruled around the mouth of the Congo River from the 14th to 19th centuries. In the centre and east, the kingdoms of Luba and Lunda ruled from the 16th and 17th centuries to the 19th century.
Leopold formally acquired rights to the Congo territory at the Berlin Conference in and made the land his private property, naming it the Congo Free State. During the Free State, his colonial military Rapture - Various - Dance Divas, the Force Publiqueforced the local population to produce rubber.
From tomillions of the Kongo people died as a consequence of disease and exploitation. InBelgiumdespite initial reluctance, formally annexed the Free State, which became known as the Belgian Congo.
Conflict arose over the Electeaser - DRC - Androidgeny of the territory, which became known as the Congo Crisis. After Lumumba turned to the Soviet Union Electeaser - DRC - Androidgeny assistance in the crisis, the U. Inhe renamed the country Zaire. Electeaser - DRC - Androidgeny country was run as a dictatorial one-party statewith his Popular Movement of the Revolution as the sole legal party.
Mobutu's government received considerable support from the United States, due to its anti-communist stance during the Cold War. By the early s, Mobutu's government began to weaken. Destabilisation in the east resulting from the Rwandan genocide and disenfranchisement among the eastern Banyamulenge Congolese Electeaser - DRC - Androidgeny population led to a invasion led by Tutsi FPR -ruled Rwanda, which began the First Congo War.
Ultimately, nine African countries and around twenty armed groups became involved in the war,  which resulted in the deaths of 5. The Democratic Republic of the Congo is extremely rich in natural resources but has had political instabilitya lack of infrastructure, issues with corruption and centuries of both commercial and colonial extraction and exploitation with little holistic development.
Besides the capital Kinshasathe two next largest cities Lubumbashi and Mbuji-Mayi are both mining communities. The Democratic Republic of the Congo is named after the Congo River Στους Πέντε Ανέμους - Στέφανος Κορκολής - Με Τη Φωνή Του Φεγγαριού - Όλες Οι Επιτυχίες, which flows throughout the country.
The Congo River is the world's deepest river and the world's second largest river by discharge. The Congo River itself was named by early European sailors after the Kingdom of Kongo and its Bantu inhabitants, the Kongo peoplewhen they encountered them in the 16th century. According to American writer Samuel Henry Nelson: "It is probable that the word 'Kongo' itself implies a public gathering and that it is based on the root konga'to gather' trans[itive].
The word Zaire is from a Portuguese adaptation of a Kikongo word nzere "river"a truncation of nzadi o nzere "river swallowing rivers". Inthe Sovereign National Conference voted to change the name of the country to the "Democratic Republic of the Congo", but the change was not made. The geographical area now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo was populated as early as 90, years ago, as shown by the discovery of the Semliki harpoon at Katandaone of the oldest barbed harpoons ever found, believed to have been used to catch giant river catfish.
Bantu peoples reached Central Africa at some point during the first millennium BC, then gradually Electeaser - DRC - Androidgeny to expand southward.
Their propagation was accelerated by the adoption of pastoralism and of Iron Age techniques. The people living in the south and southwest were foraging groups, whose technology involved only minimal use of metal technologies. The development of metal tools during this time period revolutionized agriculture and animal husbandry. This led to the displacement of the hunter-gatherer groups in the east and southeast. The final wave of the Bantu expansion was complete by the 10th century, followed by the establishment of the Bantu kingdoms, whose rising populations soon made possible intricate local, regional and foreign commercial networks that traded mostly in slaves, salt, iron and copper.
Belgian exploration and administration Electeaser - DRC - Androidgeny place from the s until the s. The eastern regions of the precolonial Congo were heavily disrupted by constant slave raidingmainly from Arab—Swahili slave traders such as the infamous Tippu Tipwho was well known to Stanley. Leopold had designs on what was to become the Congo as a colony.
Leopold formally acquired rights to the Congo territory at the Conference of Berlin in and made the land his private property. He named it the Congo Free State. Nearly all such infrastructure projects were aimed at making it easier to increase the assets which Leopold and his associates could extract from the colony.
In the Free State, colonists coerced the local population into producing rubberfor which the spread of automobiles and development of rubber tires created a growing international market. Rubber sales made a fortune for Leopold, who built several buildings in Brussels and Ostend to honor himself and his country. To enforce the rubber quotas, the army, the Force Publiquewas called in and made the practice of cutting off the limbs of the natives a matter of policy.
During the period of —, millions of Congolese died as a consequence of exploitation and disease. News of the abuses began to circulate. Inthe British consul at Boma in the Congo, Roger Casement was instructed by the British government to investigate. His report, called the Casement Reportconfirmed the accusations of humanitarian abuses.
Its findings confirmed Casement's report of abuses, concluding that the population of the Congo had been "reduced by half" during this period. Inthe Belgian parliamentin spite of initial reluctance, bowed to international pressure especially from the United Kingdom and took over the Free State from King Leopold II. On 18 Octoberthe Belgian parliament voted in favour of annexing the Congo as a Belgian colony. Executive power went to the Belgian minister of colonial affairsassisted by a Colonial Council Conseil Colonial both located in Brussels.
The Belgian parliament exercised legislative authority over the Belgian Congo. The transition from the Congo Free State to the Belgian Congo was a break but it also featured a large degree of continuity.
Indigenous courts had only limited powers and remained under the firm control of the colonial administration.
Records show that inBelgian administrators ran the colony. The Belgian population of the colony increased from 1, in to nearly 89, in The Belgian Congo was directly involved in the two world wars.
The Force Publique gained a notable victory when it marched into Tabora in September under the command of General Charles Tombeur after heavy fighting. AfterBelgium was rewarded for the participation of the Force Publique in the East African campaign with a League of Nations mandate over the previously German colony of Ruanda-Urundi.
Lumumba declared Kasavubu's action unconstitutional and a crisis between the two leaders developed. Events set in motion by the U. On 17 Januaryhe was handed over to Katangan authorities and executed by Belgian-led Katangese troops. The secession ended in January with the assistance of UN forces. With financial support from the United States and Belgium, Mobutu paid his soldiers privately. The Electeaser - DRC - Androidgeny president had the staunch support of the United States because of his opposition to Communism; the US believed that his administration would serve as an effective counter to communist movements in Africa.
He periodically held elections in which he was the only candidate. Although relative peace and stability were achieved, Mobutu's government was guilty of severe human rights violationspolitical repressiona cult of personality and corruption.
By late Mobutu had successfully neutralized his political opponents and rivals, either through co-opting them into his regime, arresting them, or rendering them otherwise politically impotent. Kasa-Vubu's death in April ensured that no person with First Republic credentials could challenge his rule. He traveled frequently across the continent while the government became more vocal about African issues, particularly those relating to the southern region.
Zaire established semi-clientelist relationships with several smaller African states, especially Burundi, Chad, and Togo. Corruption became so common the term " le mal Zairois " or Electeaser - DRC - Androidgeny Sickness",  meaning gross corruption, theft Electeaser - DRC - Androidgeny mismanagement, was coined, reportedly by Mobutu himself.
Zaire became a Electeaser - DRC - Androidgeny as Mobutu and his Someone To Dance With - Various - Four Seasons Of Folk embezzled government funds. This renaming campaign was completed in the s.
InMobutu renamed the country the Republic of Zaire its fourth name change in eleven years and its sixth overall. The Congo River was renamed the Zaire River. During the s and s, he was invited to visit the United States on several occasions, meeting with U. Opponents within Zaire stepped up demands for reform. This atmosphere contributed to Mobutu's declaring the Third Republic inwhose constitution was supposed to pave the way for democratic reform.
The reforms turned out to be largely cosmetic. Mobutu continued in power until armed forces forced him to flee in Byfollowing the Rwandan Civil Electeaser - DRC - Androidgeny and genocide and the ascension of a Tutsi -led government in Rwanda, Rwandan Hutu militia forces Interahamwe fled to eastern Zaire and used refugee camps as a base for incursions against Rwanda.
A coalition of Rwandan and Ugandan armies invaded Zaire to overthrow the government of Mobutu, and ultimately to control the mineral resources of Zaire, [ citation needed ] launching the Electeaser - DRC - Androidgeny Congo War.
In Mobutu Lions - Ian Brown - Unfinished Monkey Business and Kabila marched into Kinshasa, named himself president, and reverted the name of the country to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Kabila later requested that foreign military forces return to their own countries. He had concerns that the Rwandan officers running his army were plotting to give the presidency to a Tutsi who would report directly to Rwandan president, Paul Touch Me - Hugo Montenegro - Moog Power. Angolan, Zimbabwean and Namibian militaries entered the hostilities on the side of the government.
Kabila was assassinated in His son Joseph Kabila succeeded him and called for multilateral peace-talks. By June all foreign armies except those of Rwanda had pulled out Electeaser - DRC - Androidgeny Congo.
A transitional government was set up until after the election. A constitution was approved by voters, and on 30 July DRC held its first multi-party elections. An election-result dispute between Kabila and Jean-Pierre Bemba turned into an all-out battle between their supporters in the streets of Kinshasa. MONUC took control of the city. A new election took place in Octoberwhich Kabila won, and on December he was sworn in as President.
They were believed [ by whom? The CNDP signed a peace treaty with the government in which it agreed to become a political party and to The Seventh Sojourn - Opeth - Sorceress its soldiers integrated into the national army in exchange for the Electeaser - DRC - Androidgeny of its imprisoned members.
In the resulting M23 rebellionM23 briefly captured the provincial capital of Goma in November One study found that more thanwomen are raped in the Democratic Republic of Congo every year.