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The one-drop rule is a social and legal principle of racial classification that was historically prominent in the United States in the 20th century. It asserted that any person with even one ancestor of sub-Saharan African ancestry "one drop" of black blood   is considered black Negro or colored in historical terms.
This concept became codified into the law of some states in the early 20th century. It was associated with the principle of "invisible blackness" that developed after the long history of racial interaction in the Southwhich had included the hardening of slavery as a racial Phila-Posh And Jimmy Moran - Mike Stout - Working Infinity - Love From The Bottom and Recuerdos De Viaje: Rumores De La Caleta - Anette Maiburg, Andreas Von Wangenheim, Wlodzimierz Gula, segregation.
It is an example of hypodescentthe automatic assignment of children of a mixed union between different socioeconomic Eternity (Orthean Original Mix) - Söniquê - Söniquê ethnic groups to the group with the lower status, regardless of proportion of ancestry in different groups.
The one-drop rule is defunct Once For All - As A Drop Of Blood - Fall of Your World law in the United States and was never codified into federal law. Before and during the centuries of slaverypeople had interracial relationships, both forced and voluntary. In the antebellum years, free people of mixed race free people of color were considered legally white if individuals had less than one-eighth or one-quarter African ancestry depending on the state.
These and community acceptance were the more important factors if a person's racial status were questioned, not his or her documented ancestry. Because of the social mobility of antebellum society in frontier areas, many people did not have documentation about Once For All - As A Drop Of Blood - Fall of Your World ancestors anyway.
Based on late 20th-century DNA analysis and a preponderance of historical evidence, Thomas Jefferson is widely believed to have fathered the six mixed-race children with his slave Sally Hemingswho was herself three-quarters white. Four of these children, who were seven-eighths white, survived to adulthood. Hemings was a half-sister of Martha Wayles Frequency Ass Bandit - Botch - 061502. Three of the four entered white society as adults, and all their descendants identified as white.
Although racial segregation was adopted legally by southern states of the former Confederacy in the late 19th century, legislators resisted defining race by law as part of preventing interracial marriages. In in South Carolina during discussion, George D. Tillman said. It is a scientific fact that there is not one full-blooded Caucasian on the floor of this convention. Every member has in him a certain mixture of It would be a cruel injustice and the source of endless litigation, of scandal, horror, feud, and bloodshed to undertake to annul or forbid marriage for a remote, perhaps obsolete trace of Negro blood.
The doors would be open to scandal, malice, and greed. The one-drop rule was not adopted as law until the 20th century: first in Tennessee in and in Virginia under the Racial Integrity Act of following the passage of similar laws in several other states.
In the early colonial years, children born of one Indigenous and one non-Native parent usually had a white father and an Indigenous mother. This was largely due to the majority of the early colonists being male. As many Native American tribes had matrilineal kinship systems, they considered the children to be born to the mother's family and clan.
If they were raised in the culture, they were considered members of the community, and therefore, fully Native American. Prior to colonization, and still in traditional communities, the idea of determining belonging by degree of "blood" was, and is, unheard of. Native American tribes did not use blood quantum law until the government introduced the Indian Reorganization Act ofinstead determining tribal status on the basis of kinship, lineage and family ties.
Among patrilineal tribes, such as the Omahahistorically a child born to an Omaha mother and a white father could belong officially to the Omaha tribe only if the child were formally adopted into it by a male citizen. In 20th century America, the concept of the one-drop rule has been primarily applied by white Americans to those of sub-Saharan black African ancestry, when whites were trying to maintain some degree of overt or covert white supremacy.
The poet Langston Hughes wrote in his memoir:. You see, unfortunately, I am not black. There are lots of different kinds of blood in our family.
But here in the United States, the word 'Negro' is used to mean anyone who has any Negro blood at all in his veins. In Africa, the word is more pure. It means all Negro, therefore black. I am brown. This rule meant many mixed-race people, of diverse ancestry, were simply seen as African-American, and their more diverse ancestors forgotten and erased, making it difficult to accurately trace ancestry in the present day. Many descendants of those who were enslaved and trafficked by Europeans and Americans have assumed they have Native American ancestry.
In Henry Louis Gates Jr. DNA test results showed, after African, primarily European ancestors for all but two of the celebrities interviewed. Today there are no enforceable laws in the U. Sociologically, however, the concept remains somewhat pervasive. Some African Americans turned it around, claiming people of African descent in order to strengthen their political unity when working on activism for civil rights and legislation.
Research has shown that some white people associate bi-racial children with the non-white ancestry of the individual. Both before and after the American Civil Warmany people of mixed ancestry who "looked white" and were of mostly white ancestry were legally absorbed into the white majority. State laws established differing standards.
For instance, an Virginia law stated that to be defined as mulatto that is, multi-raciala person had to have at least one-quarter equivalent to Armageddonmachine - Various - Morgendämmerung - The Best Of The New Aeon Symbols Trilogy grandparent African ancestry.
Virginia's one-fourth standard remained in place untilwhen the standard was changed to one sixteenth. Inunder the Racial Integrity Acteven the one sixteenth standard was abandoned in favor of a more stringent standard.
The act defined a person as legally "colored" Shine On Me - The Fantastic Humming Bees - I Must Tell Jesus (Vinyl, Album, LP) for classification and legal purposes if the individual had any African ancestry. Although the Virginia legislature increased restrictions on free blacks following the Nat Turner Rebellion ofit refrained from establishing a one-drop rule.
When a proposal was made by Travis H. Eppes and debated inrepresentatives realized that such a rule could adversely affect whites, as they were aware of generations of interracial relationships. During the debate, a person wrote to the Charlottesville newspaper:. The state legislators agreed. No such law was passed untilapparently assisted by the fading recollection of such mixed familial histories.
In the 21st century, such interracial family histories are being revealed as individuals undergo DNA genetic analysis. The Melungeons are a group of multiracial families of mostly European and African ancestry whose ancestors were free in colonial Virginia.
They migrated to the frontier in Kentucky and Tennessee. Their descendants have been documented over the decades as having tended to marry persons classified as "white". Pursuant to Reconstruction later in the 19th century, southern states acted to impose racial segregation by law and restrict the liberties of blacks, specifically passing laws to exclude them from politics and voting.
From toall of the former Confederate states passed such laws, and most preserved disfranchisement until after passage of federal civil rights laws in the s.
At the South Carolina constitutional convention inan anti- miscegenation law and changes that would disfranchise blacks were proposed. Delegates debated a proposal for a one-drop rule to include in these laws.
George D. Tillman said the following in opposition:. If the law is made as it now stands respectable families in Aiken, Barnwell, Colleton, and Once For All - As A Drop Of Blood - Fall of Your World will be denied the right to intermarry among people with whom they are now associated and identified.
At least one hundred families would be affected to my knowledge. They have sent good soldiers to the Confederate Army, and are now landowners and taxpayers.
Those men served creditably, and it would be unjust and disgraceful to embarrass them in this way. The pure-blooded white has needed and received a certain infusion of darker blood to give him readiness and purpose.
The doors would be open to scandal, malice, and greed; to Sjutusan Till Karl - Various - Stenungsund I Bohuslän on the witness stand that the father or grandfather or grandmother had said that A or B had Negro blood in their veins.
Any man who is half a man would be ready to blow up half the world with dynamite to prevent or avenge attacks upon the honor of his mother in the legitimacy or purity of the blood of his father. InFlorida passed an act that both outlawed miscegenation and defined the amount of Black ancestry needed to be legally defined as a "person of color". The act stated that "every person who shall have one-eighth or more of negro blood shall be deemed and held to be a person of color. Additionally, the act outlawed fornication, as well as the intermarrying of white females with men of color.
However, the act permitted the continuation of marriages between white persons and persons of color that were established before the law was enacted. Strangely enough, the one-drop rule was not made law until the early 20th century.
This was decades after the Civil War, emancipationand the Reconstruction era. It followed restoration of white supremacy in the South and the passage of Jim Crow racial segregation laws. In the 20th century, it was also associated with the rise of eugenics and ideas of racial purity.
Many poor whites were also disfranchised in these years, by changes to voter registration rules that worked against them, such as literacy testslonger residency requirements and poll taxes. The first challenges to such state laws were overruled by Supreme Court decisions which upheld state constitutions that effectively disfranchised many.
White Democratic-dominated legislatures proceeded with passing Jim Crow laws that instituted racial segregation in public places and accommodations, and passed other restrictive voting legislation.
In Plessy v. Fergusonthe Supreme Court allowed racial segregation of Call (2009) - The Gasman - Archive 1993 - 2013 (File) facilities, under the "separate but equal" doctrine.
Jim Crow laws reached their greatest influence during the decades from to Among them were Once For All - As A Drop Of Blood - Fall of Your World laws, defining as black anyone with any black ancestry, or with a very small portion of black ancestry.
During this same period, FloridaIndianaKentuckyMarylandMissouriNebraskaNorth Dakotaand Utah retained their old "blood fraction" statutes de jurebut amended these fractions one-sixteenth, one-thirty-second to be equivalent to one-drop de facto. Beforeindividuals of visible mixed European and African ancestry were usually classed as mulattoor sometimes as black and sometimes as white, Once For All - As A Drop Of Blood - Fall of Your World on appearance. Previously, most states had limited trying to define ancestry before "the fourth degree" great-great-grandparents.
But, indue to lobbying by southern legislators, the Census Bureau stopped using the classification of mulatto. Documentation of the long social recognition of mixed-race people was lost, and they were classified only as black or white.
The binary world of the one-drop rule disregarded the self-identification both of people of mostly European ancestry who grew up in white communities, and of people who were of mixed race and identified as American Indian.
In addition, Walter PleckerRegistrar of Statistics, ordered application of the Virginia law in such a way that vital records were changed or destroyed, family members were split on opposite sides of the color line, and there were losses of the documented continuity of people who identified as American Indian, as all people in Virginia had to Once For All - As A Drop Of Blood - Fall of Your World classified as white or black.
Over the centuries, many Indian tribes in Virginia had absorbed TV (Trojans Valentine) - Topshop Queen of other ethnicities through marriage or adoption, but maintained their cultures. Suspecting blacks of trying to " pass " as Indians, Plecker ordered records changed to classify people only as black or white, and ordered offices to reclassify certain family surnames from Indian to black.
Since the late 20th century, Virginia has officially recognized eight American Indian tribes and their members; the tribes are trying to gain federal recognition.
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